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我“拍”故我在:自拍的兴起

原文作者:佚名

 许多年前,自拍是个技术活儿:为相机设定好倒计时,然后迅速跑到镜头前,静待那“咔嚓”一声快门。后来,自拍是一种迫不得已:把胳膊伸到最远的距离,镜头对准自己按下快门,然后急切地查看自己的大脸是否全部进入了画面。如今,自拍是一种生活态度:无聊时打开手机的前置摄像头,摆好表情,一秒即成。技术的进步使自拍越来越容易实现,个体的独立使人们越来越关注自身,于是社交网络上出现了“自拍一族”,他们用照片来记录生活中的大事小事。无论你想不想看,自拍照就在那里,或悲或喜,不离不弃。[论文网] 
   the first smartphone with a forward-facing camera was the watershed1) moment.
   you only need this forward-facing camera if you want to take pictures of yourself. could there be any more conclusive indication of the ubiquity of the self-portrait or selfie?
   the cameras, which focus automatically from arm’s length, invite us to photograph on the spur of the moment2), regardless of location or company.
   images can be shared with thousands of other people. its immediacy—look where i am! look what i’m doing! look at what i look like!—is exciting. to some.
   there’s the high angle photo, awkwardly featuring the taker’s arm. there’s the mirror self-portrait. there are posed selfies, with bambi-eyes3) and pouting4) lips. and there are group selfies, even dodging5) a stranger’s kind offer to take the same photo.
   a search on photo sharing app instagram retrieves over 23 million photos uploaded with the hashtag6) #selfie, and a whopping7) 51 million with the hashtag #me.
   rihanna8), justin bieber, lady gaga and madonna are all serial uploaders of selfies. model kelly brook took so many she ended up “banning” herself. the obama children were spotted posing into their mobile phones at their father’s second inauguration9). even astronaut steve robinson took a photo of himself during his repair of the space shuttle discovery.
   selfie-ism is everywhere. the word “selfie” has been bandied about10) so much it’s currently being monitored for inclusion in the oxford dictionary online.
   the first self-portrait photograph is thought to have been taken by camera pioneer robert cornelius in 1839, but whether or not it’s a true selfie is debatable.
   “it’s likely he may have had a friend or assistant to make the actual exposure,” says dr. michael pritchard, historian and director general of the royal photographic society.
   “it’s more likely the first selfies were taken a bit later on. the first shutters11) with self-timers were available as early as the late 1880s, and allowed five or ten seconds for the subject to get into the shot.
   “some cameras also had long cable releases12), allowing the subject to press the shutter from a distance.”
   sharing of self-portraits also pre-dates the internet. the 1860s saw huge popularity for the sharing of cartes de visite—little photocards. even the photo booth dates back as far as 1880, and attracted groups of friends much as it does today.

 then there was the polaroid13). first sold from 1948 but not truly “instant” until its 1970s heyday14), polaroid cameras could

be held at arm’s length and encouraged people to take more intimate photos.
   “the polaroid’s big plus was that you didn’t have to take a film to be developed,” explains dr. pritchard. “it freed up the amateur who didn’t have a darkroom from having someone look at the photograph before he or she did.”
   technological advances mean that where we once had to remain very still due to long exposure times—creating a more formal image—now we can be captured quickly and informally.
   some people prefer the images they take themselves.
  “mirror images are primarily private and transient15),” says dr. pamela rutledge, director of the media psychology research centre in boston. “we see ourselves alive and dynamic, a person in progress.”
   emily cook, a 22-year-old instagram user, believes they elicit16) a feel-good factor. “it’s always nice to document a good hair day, or an outfit you love. and generally, especially with instagram, there’s a real feel-good attitude towards selfies, and as vain as it may be, you know that if you’re not feeling great, there’s someone who will ‘like’ your photo and tell you you’re pretty.”
   it is also, she believes, just another way to tell a story through social networking: “instead of saying you’re going to work, a photo of you in your uniform does that.”
   according to dr. rutledge, we enjoy opportunities to experiment with different identities—and the selfie allows just that. “we all want to be able to ‘try’ on a new image and imagine how we would feel as that part of ourselves,” she explains.
   according to recent findings from the pew research centre, teenagers in america are sharing more information than ever about themselves on social media. of those studied, 91% post photos of themselves online—up from 79% in 2006.
   one theory is that the selfie tells other people how we want to be seen.
  dr. aaron balick, a psychotherapist who has written a book about the human motivations behind social networking, explains that we have both “active online identities” and “passive online identities.”
   “a passive one is like when you search for yourself, or when friends post information about you—it’s your online identity that you have no control over,” he explains. “active online identities are ones you can control, like a facebook profile.

 “a selfie is an expression of an active online identity, something you have some control over. you might take lots, but you’ll publish the ones you like—even if they are silly or unflattering.”
   the selfie trend as a whole has attracted a significant amount of criticism.
  for many it’s still inexorably17) associated with “sexting”—sending sexual photographs via text, which are typically self-taken.
   of course, most selfies are clothed and innocuous18). but they can still get people in trouble.
   “just like with other forms of behaviour that push the edges of t

he social envelope19), those who create provocative selfies to get attention will not only not get the kind of attention they really want, but may find that they have created something that they have a hard time getting rid of,” says rutledge.
   selfie-taker emily points out that her generation has forever been warned about internet risks and, as a result, she’s careful. “i know the circle of people who see my images, and if any of them make me uncomfortable—i have received dodgy20) messages—i just block them.
   “at the end of the day21) it’s my face and body, and if i choose to put it online that’s up to me, but i also have to take the blame if they fall into the wrong hands. i’d never post anything i wouldn’t want printed and sent to my mum.”
   selfies are commonly criticised not for their potential risks, but for their associations with vanity and narcissism. isn’t it a bit, well, cringeworthy22) to take the time to photograph ourselves, and assume our friends (not to mention potential strangers) will want to see the results?
   “culturally people aren’t supposed to self-promote or ‘brag’—especially women,” says rutledge. but attitudes depend on how we feel more generally about sharing personal information on the internet. the increase in sharing of all kinds of personal information and images may have redefined what is “normal.”
   第一部带有前置摄像头的智能手机是重要转折点。WwW.11665.com
  要想给自己拍照,你只需要这样一个前置的摄像头。还有比这更明确的迹象来表明自画像或自拍的无所不在吗?
  这些能够在一臂之外的地方自动对焦的摄像头会诱使我们在心血来潮时拍照,不论在什么地方或是和什么人在一起。
  照片能够被分享给成千上万的其他人。瞧我在哪儿呢!瞧我在做什么呢!瞧我是什么样子!——这种即时性令人激动,当然这只是对于某些人来说。
  自拍照片五花八门:有高角度自拍,照片中会尴尬地出现自拍者的胳膊;有对镜自拍;有摆姿势自拍,照片中的自拍者眼神无辜,还嘟着嘴唇;还有集体自拍,连陌生人主动帮忙拍照的善意都避免了。
   你如果在照片分享软件instagram上进行搜索,可以检索到2300多万上传时添加了“#自拍”标签的照片,而添加了“#我”标签的照片达到了惊人的5100万张之多。
   蕾哈娜、贾斯汀·比伯、嘎嘎小姐和麦当娜都上传过一系列自拍照。模特凯利·布鲁克则因为自拍了太多照片,最后只好“禁止”自己再拍。在奥巴马的第二次就职典礼上,人们发现他的孩子们也在对着手机摆姿势。甚至连航天员史蒂夫·鲁滨逊在修理“探索号”航天飞机时也自拍了一张照片。

 自拍主义无处不在。“自拍”一词最近被如此频繁地谈及,以至于人们正密切关注,考虑将之纳入“牛津在线词典”。
  第一张自拍照被认为是摄影先驱罗伯特·科尔内留斯于1839年所拍摄的,但这张照片是否是真正的自拍照还有待商榷。
  “当时真正给他拍照的有可能是他的一位朋友或助手。”历史学家、皇家摄影协会总干事迈克尔·普里查德博士说。
  “第一批自拍照更有可能是稍晚一些时候拍摄的。最早具有自拍装置的快门早在19世纪80年代末就出现了,可以给拍照人预留五或十秒的时间使其进入镜头。
  “有些相机还有很长的快门线,拍照人可以从远处按下快门。”
  自拍照的分享也早在互联网诞生之前就出现了。19世纪60年代就曾盛行过交换名片——一种小相片卡。甚至快照亭的出现都可以追溯至1880年,当时它曾吸引朋友们成群结队来拍照,正如今天一样。
   后来有了宝丽来。宝丽来最早从1948年开始出售,但直到20世纪70年代的全盛时期,宝丽来才真正实现了“即时”成像。人们可以把宝丽来相机拿在一臂之外的地方拍照,这促使人们开始拍摄更加亲密的照片。
   “宝丽来的一大优势是你不必把胶片拿去冲洗,”普里查德博士解释道,“这解放了没有暗室的业余拍照者,使他们不必让别人先于自己看到照片。”
  以前因为曝光时间长,我们拍照时不得不保持一动不动,这样拍出的照片更正式些。而技术方面的进步意味着现在我们可以快速、随意地拍照。
  有些人更喜欢自己拍摄的照片。
  “镜像从根本上说是私密和转瞬即逝的,”位于波士顿的媒体心理学研究中心主任帕梅拉·拉特利奇博士说,“我们看到的自己精神抖擞、充满活力,是处于活动状态的一个人。”
   22岁的instagram用户埃米莉·库克认为自拍能让人感觉良好。“记录发型很漂亮的一天,或者你喜欢的一套衣服,这总是让人感觉不错。一般而言,特别是在instagram上,人们对自拍总是抱有一种真正的感觉良好的态度。你知道就算你感觉不那么好,也会有人‘赞’你的照片,并告诉你你很漂亮,尽管这或许挺虚荣的。”
   她认为,自拍还是通过社交网络讲故事的另一种方式:“你不用说自己要去上班了,你穿制服的照片就说明了这一点。”
  拉特利奇博士认为,我们喜欢有机会来体验不同的身份,而自拍恰好可以实现这一点。“我们都希望能‘试试’有一副新的形象,想象作为另外一个自己会

是什么感觉。”她解释道。
   根据皮尤研究中心的最新发现,美国青少年在社交媒体上分享的个人信息之多是前所未有的。在接受调查的青少年中,91%的人会在网上发布自己的照片,比2006年的79%有所上升。
   有一种理论这样解释:自拍能告诉其他人我们想呈现怎样的形象。
  阿龙·巴利克博士是一位精神治疗师,著有一本关于社交网络背后的人类动机的书。他解释说,我们有两种身份,即“主动线上身份”和“被动线上身份”。
  “打个比方,被动线上身份是指你搜索到的关于自己的信息,或是朋友们发布的关于你的信息——这是你无法控制的线上身份,”他解释说,“而主动线上身份是你可以控制的身份,例如facebook上的个人简介。
   “自拍是主动线上身份的一种表达,是你能有所控制的事物。你也许会拍很多张,但只会发布自己喜欢的几张——哪怕这些照片看上去很傻或者有损形象。”
  从总体上看,自拍潮流招致了大量的批评。
  在很多人看来,自拍仍然与“发色情短信”有不可分割的关系,后者是指通过短信发送色情照片,这些照片往往都是自拍的。
  当然,大多数自拍照是穿着衣服、无伤大雅的,但它们仍然会给人带来麻烦。
  “就像挑战社会容忍极限的其他行为方式一样,那些拍摄具有挑逗性的自拍照以期获得关注的人不仅得不到他们真正想要得到的那种关注,而且可能会发现他们制造了自己难以摆脱的麻烦。”拉特利奇说道。
   自拍者埃米莉指出,他们这一代人一直被告诫要警惕互联网上的风险,因而她很小心。“我认识看我照片的那群人,如果其中任何人让我感到不舒服——我曾收到过一些可疑的信息——我就把他们拉黑。
   “说到底,脸蛋和身体是我自己的。如果我选择把照片放在网上,这是我自己的决定。但是如果这些照片落入坏人手中,我也必须要承担责任。我决不会发布任何我不想打印出来寄给我妈妈的照片。”
   自拍遭到批评不是因为其存在潜在的风险,而是因为人们会将其与虚荣和自恋联系起来。花时间给自己拍照,而且想当然地认为自己的朋友(更不要说潜在的陌生人)想要看到自拍的结果,这难道不会有点……呃,让人难堪吗?
   “从文化角度来说,人们不应该推销自己或是‘自夸’——特别是女性。”拉特利奇说。但对自拍的态度取决于我们如何从更广泛的角度看待在互联网上分享个人信息这件事。各种个人信息和图片的分享越来越多,这可能已经重新界定了什么是“正常”的行为。
   1. watershed [?w??t?(r)??ed] n. 转折点;分水岭
  2. on the spur of the moment:不加考虑,冲动之下
  3. bambi-eyes:指无辜而惹人怜爱的眼神,bambi是迪士尼经典动画《小鹿斑比》(bambi)中小鹿的名字。
  4. pout [pa?t] vi. 撅嘴
  5. dodge [d?d?] vt. 规避,躲避
  6. hashtag [?h???t?ɡ] n. (微博等的)标签
  7. whopping [?w?p??] adj. 极大的,庞大的
  8. rihanna:即罗宾·蕾哈娜·芬蒂(robyn rihanna fenty, 1988~),巴巴多斯女歌手,是21世纪以来全球唱片销量最高的歌手之一,代表作品有“love the way you lie”“we found love”等。
   9. inauguration [??n??ɡj??re??(?)n] n. 就职典礼
  10. bandy about:轻率地(或开玩笑地)谈论,议论,谈及
  11. shutter [???t?(r)] n. (相机的)快门
  12. cable release:[摄] (照相机的)快门线
  13. polaroid:宝丽来,著名的即时成像相机品牌
  14. heyday [?he?de?] n. 全盛时期
  15. transient [?tr?nzi?nt] adj. 短暂的,易逝的
  16. elicit [??l?s?t] vt. 引起
  17. inexorably [?n?eks?r?bli] adv. 不可阻挡地,不可动摇地
  18. innocuous [??n?kju?s] adj. 无伤大雅的
  19. push the edge of the envelope:〈口〉挑战极限
  20. dodgy [?d?d?i] adj. 〈英口〉可疑的,不可靠的
  21. at the end of the day:经过全面考虑之后;总而言之
  22. cringeworthy [?kr?nd??w??(r)?i] adj. 使非常难堪或厌恶的
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  •  更新时间:2013-11-05 09:30:10  作者:佚名 [标签: ]
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